The Absence of an Empathetic Witness

Several people standing with their arms around each other, photo taken from behind, so that the composition is a tangle of backs and arms.

“Trauma is not what happens to us, but what we hold inside in the absence of an empathetic witness.”

About the Author

Peter A. Levine

Peter A. Levine, Ph.D. is the Director of The Somatic Experiencing Trauma Institute. He holds doctorate degrees in Medical Biophysics and in Psychology and during his thirty five-year study of stress and trauma, has contributed to a variety of scientific and popular publications.

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