The Ins and Outs of the Committee System
Congregational Action
(Or How Congress Deals With Processing Thousands of Pieces of Legislation a Year)

About the Committee System

Due to the high volume and complexity of its work, Congress divides its tasks among approximately 250 committees and sub committees. The House and Senate each have their own committee system, which are similar. Within chamber guidelines, however, each committee adopts its own rules; thus, there is considerable variation among panels.

Standing committees generally have legislative jurisdiction. Subcommittees handle specific areas of the committee’s work. Select and joint committees generally handle oversight or housekeeping responsibilities.

The chair of each committee and a majority of its members represent the majority party. The chair primarily controls a committee’s business. Each party assigns its own members to committees, and each committee distributes its members among its subcommittees. The Senate places limits on the number and types of panels any one senator may serve on and chair.

Committees receive varying levels of operating funds and employ varying numbers of aides. Each hires its own staff. The majority party controls most committee staff and resources, but a portion is shared with the minority.

Several thousand bills and resolutions are referred to committees during each 2-year Congress. Committees select a small percentage for consideration, and those not addressed often receive no further action. The bills that committees report help to set the Senate’s agenda.

When a committee or subcommittee favors a measure, it usually takes four actions. First it asks relevant executive agencies for written comments on the measure. Second, it holds hearings to gather information and views from non-committee experts. At committee hearings, these witnesses summarize submitted statements and then respond to questions from the senators. Third, a committee meets to perfect the measure through amendments, and non-committee members sometimes attempt to influence the language. Fourth, when language is agreed upon, the committee sends the measure back to the full Senate, usually along with a written report describing its purposes and provisions.

A committee’s influence extends to its enactment of bills into law. A committee that considers a measure will manage the full Senate’s deliberation on it. Also, its members will be appointed to any conference committee created to reconcile its version of a bill with the version passed by the House of Representatives.

Other types of committees deal with the confirmation or rejection of presidential nominees. Committee hearings that focus on the implementation and investigation of programs are known as oversight hearings, whereas committee investigations examine allegations of wrongdoing.

Source: The Committee System in the U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. August 29, 1994, revised by the Senate Historical Office, September 2002.

Senate Committees


Special, Select, and Other


U.S. Senate Caucuses

Informal congressional groups and organizations of Members with shared interests in specific issues or philosophies have been part of the American policymaking process since colonial times. Typically, these groups organize without official recognition by the chamber and are not funded through the appropriation process. In the Senate there is one officially recognized caucus—the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control established by law in 1985.

An Interactive Organizational Chart is available, demonstrating the relationships among Senate leaders and officers who manage the flow of legislative and administrative business in the Senate.

Learn about the history of the Senate committee system, and how it has evolved since the Senate created its first permanent committees in 1816.

House Committees

House Committee Quick Links to:
Membership, Subcommittees, Schedules, Hearings, Jurisdiction, Hot Topics, and Web Casts.

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